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Category Archives: Mental Health

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Professional Development Resources is approved to sponsor continuing education by the American Psychological Association (APA); the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Georgia State Board of Occupational Therapy; the New York State Education Department’s State Board for Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed mental health counselors (#MHC-0135); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501); the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678); and is CE Broker compliant (all courses are reported within a few days of completion)

 
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Posted by on December 18, 2019 in Mental Health

 

Training in Person-Centered Care

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Course excerpt from The Nursing Home Resident: A Holistic Approach

“The impending crisis, which has been foreseen for decades, is now upon us. The nation needs to act now to prepare the health care workforce to meet the care needs of older adults.” Institute of Medicine

“In order to treat elders in a holistic manner, all staff in a skilled nursing facility require education in person-centered care. It can be too easy to see residents as nothing more than a job to finish. Education about the complicated issues of aging can help staff see the resident as a whole person. Maintenance staff will know how to speak to the person with difficulty understanding. Dietary staff will know when to comfort the lonely resident. The receptionist will know who can go outside safely, and who should be accompanied.

Training Topics

Research has identified the need for training in long-term care facilities. Topics identified by staff include pain and symptom management; communication with residents, family members, and the facility team; time management; self-care; and identifying goals of care. Management identified staff educational needs in the areas of end-of-life care, communication, basic symptom assessment, and management skills (Cimino, Lockman, Grant, & McPherson, 2016).

It can be very difficult to treat an elder in a long-term care facility with dual diagnosis – substance misuse and serious mental health. These elders can have complex care needs, including serious medical issues, social adjustment problems, and emotional dysfunction. Education of all staff in the facility is important, so staff know the appropriate responses to the elder as well as actions to avoid (Cacchione, Eible, Le Roi, & Huege, 2016).

The incidence of long-term post-traumatic stress disorder is recognized as a phenomenon that affects not only in veterans, but also elders who have experienced trauma. Hualquil (2018) notes that long-term care facilities have many residents who have experienced significant trauma: a stroke, surgery, or a car crash with severe injuries. Perhaps the elder fell at home when showering and lay in the shower for hours (or days) until someone noticed their absence and sent help. Training in PTSD symptoms and appropriate responses are needed for long-term care staff to address the needs of elders who have experienced trauma. Staff should also be aware that PTSD can be present in any resident, not just a combat veteran.

Compassion Fatigue and Burnout

Even though death is part of the job in long-term care facilities, staff are often ill-prepared to deal with recurring death and grief. Close relationships between front-line staff and residents result in staff grieving when a resident dies. Some facilities have memorial services or remembrance groups, but this is rare. Even if these services are offered, they are provided as unpaid time. Staff may not want to ask for help with their grief, afraid of being seen as incompetent. Staff may detach themselves emotionally from the residents they care for as a self-protective measure. This strategy, however, results in a poor relationship with residents, who rely on staff for emotional support and validation (Marcella & Kelley, 2015).

Working daily with death can lead to compassion fatigue and burnout. Gentry and Baranowsky (2013) found the professionals most vulnerable to compassion fatigue fit one or more of the following categories:

  • People who expect a lot from themselves. They will push for better performance even if they are worn out.
  • People who require positive feedback from work and/or a positive outcome from their work.
  • People with low levels of compassion for themselves.
  • People who believe exhaustion if acceptable if it produces results.
  • People with a large, complicated caseload.
  • People who identify with those who are traumatized.
  • People who work in an unsupportive workplace.
  • People with no access to a support network.

A systematic review of interventions for compassion fatigue (Cocker & Joss, 2016) found the best results for intervention focuses on education of healthcare professionals at risk for compassion fatigue. An educational program included a four-hour seminar that provided education about compassion fatigue’s psychological and physical effects, symptoms of burnout and compassion fatigue, and factors that make a person vulnerable to compassion fatigue. Participants received not only seminar handouts, but a CD with guided imagery, website access to online resources, and a DVD that contained information about Gentry’s five elements. 

Di Biase and colleagues (2016) found that a compassion resiliency program that educated healthcare professionals about compassion fatigue decreased clinical stress and increased both mindfulness and awareness of work/life balance. Participants were better able to recognize signs of compassion fatigue in themselves and others.

Looking to the Future

The Institute of Medicine, looking forward to the upcoming change in our country’s demographics, issued a report, Retooling for an Aging America: Building the Health Care Workforce (Fineberg, 2008). The report notes that more healthcare professionals with specific skill sets will be required to treat older Americans. The care needed in the future should follow these principles:

  • Healthcare for the older population should be comprehensive, coordinated, and person-centered.
  • Care should include preventive as well as supportive services.
  • Evidence-based practice protocols should be followed.
  • Services need to be provided efficiently, through interdisciplinary teams.
  • Older persons need to be active partners in their own care.

Demonstration projects are underway to test new models of care that reflect changing demographics and the need for more efficient and effective care. Healthcare professionals should monitor research to determine evidence-based practices that best fit their practice and clientele.”

To learn more about the needs of the population and the continuum of services offered in long-term care facilities, as well to expand your knowledge about issues that affect the care and quality of life in older adults, read our updated course The Nursing Home Resident: A Holistic Approach.

CE Credit: 1Hour

Target Audience: Psychology CE, Counseling CE, Social Work CE, Marriage and Family Therapy CE, Occupational Therapy CE, Nutrition and Dietetics CE

Learning Level: Introductory

Course Type: Online

Professional Development Resources is approved to sponsor continuing education by the American Psychological Association (APA); the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Georgia State Board of Occupational Therapy; the New York State Education Department’s State Board for Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed mental health counselors (#MHC-0135); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501); the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678); and is CE Broker compliant (all courses are reported within a few days of completion).

 
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Posted by on December 12, 2019 in Mental Health

 

What Are Your Child’s Behaviors Telling You?

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Course excerpt from High Functioning Autism in Children

“Dealing with a child who has High Functioning Autism (HFA) comes with many challenges. It is helpful for caregivers to understand that their children are not being intentionally contrary when they act out. They simply don’t possess the skills required to deal with their own challenges. Their behavior is a communication tactic, and both parents and professionals who work with children who have HFA need to ‘hear’ the messages in their behavior. According to Ozonoff et al. (2015), these children do not have the ability to employ language to express themselves; thus, they typically throw tantrums or exhibit other challenging behaviors in unproductive attempts to convey one or more of the following:

  1. Messages indicating that the child is confused and needs assistance:
    • “This is too difficult for me.”
    • “This is confusing for me.”
    • I can’t remember what I am supposed to do.”
  2. Messages expressing a feeling:
    • “I’m hungry.”
    • “I’m sick.”
    • “I’m scared/mad/sad.”
  3. Messages indicating that the child wants to escape from the current situation:
    • “I don’t like this and want to quit.”
    • “This situation is too stimulating for me.”
    • “I need some personal space.”
    • “When will I be done? How long will this go on?”
  4. Messages indicating that the child has a strong need for sameness, predictability, and routine:
    • “I feel overwhelmed by these new (or unstructured) activities.”
    • “I expected things to be the same as before.”
    • “I don’t want to stop doing what I am doing (for example a favorite activity).”
    • “I’m not sure what happens next.”
  5. Messages indicating that the child wants access to something or socially engage with someone, but doesn’t know how:
    • “Give me that (food, object, item).”
    • “I’m bored and want your attention.”
    • “I want to play with you.”

Reasons for Meltdowns and Tantrums

 According to Lavoie (2005, p. 375) there are a number of reasons why children with HFA may have meltdowns.

  1. Sensory Overload: Children with HFA are continuously overloaded with sensations. They have a hard time prioritizing all of the sensations that they may feel, which may lead to tantrums and meltdowns.
  2. Inability to View Options: Due to inflexible and black and white thinking, children with HFA have a hard time, and if they missed a bus, they can’t imagine going any other way, like having their mother drive them.
  3. Rule Governance: The lives of children with HFA are governed by rules. Thus, for example, if a family goes out for breakfast every Sunday at 10 am, they will have difficulties if this schedule changes.
  4. Inability to Prioritize: Children with HFA have difficulties prioritizing; understanding that some events or activities are more important than others. Every event can have equal significance or importance. If they are used to coming home and then going to the park, and their schedule changes due to a visit to the dentist, they will have difficulties understanding that the dentist takes precedence over going to the park, or rigidly sticking to their schedule.
  5. Preference for Constant and Immediate Gratification: Children with HFA may have a meltdown if their needs are postponed or temporarily withdrawn for any reason. This is due to issues with the comprehension of temporal concepts; they may feel as if their needs will never be met.
  6. Transitions: Moving from one activity to another is very problematic for children with HFA. This again might be because of issues understanding temporal concepts, or because of their intense need to conclude an activity and bring it to closure.

Behavioral Triggers

Children with HFA may be triggered more quickly than typically developing children. Their reactions may be more intense, and they may take longer to calm down. They are often triggered by sounds, smells, tactile materials, or even light. According to Sheedy Kurcinka (2015), some situations that can trigger behavioral incidents are:

  1. Triggers Due to Transitions:
    • Being rushed
    • Surprises
    • Change of plans
    • New situations and new people
    • Being pushed before they are comfortable
    • Having to make quick decisions
  1. Triggers Due to Sensory Issues:
    • Sounds – tapping, noise, crowds, loud music, and sirens
    • Emotions – teasing, other children crying
    • Sight – too much TV, poor lighting (fluorescent lights are known to set off children with HFA)
    • Taste – new foods, mixing foods together
    • Touch – seams in socks, tags in clothing, playing in the sand, wool, finger-painting

Some children are disturbed by books that are aligned at different heights or different colors to the extent that they are not able to remain in the classroom. It is helpful to have these children organize them in a way that is comfortable for them. Some children are also uncomfortable if desks are not aligned symmetrically. You can give them time, perhaps once a week or during recess, to arrange the desks in a way that they like (Hughes-Lynch, 2012).

Managing Meltdowns

It is not always possible to avoid meltdowns, but in order to help reduce their frequency and intensity, it is helpful to have consistency, routine, and rules. Children with HFA thrive on consistency and routine. As mentioned earlier, they are also governed by rules. It is helpful to have some rules in place for even the smallest activity so that they know exactly what is expected of them and what will happen. Rules can also help to provide parents with specific information to use when a child is acting inappropriately. For example, “The rule is only one candy before dinner.” Children with HFA usually understand rules and respond well to them.

Despite our best planning and efforts, unexpected occurrences will happen, and meltdowns can quickly follow. During these times, it is important to do the following (Lavoie 2005, pp. 375-376):

  • Understand that the meltdown is just as frightening to the child as it is annoying to the parent or other caregivers.
  • Find a safe and private place, preferably out of earshot of others. If you can’t move the child, then move other children out of the way.
  • Assume a calm and controlled demeanor. Speak softly and gently. It is helpful if the child knows that you are in control of the situation.
  • Develop a phrase or a mantra that you can use. “You will come down soon and we can work this out.” Don’t get sidetracked by the child’s demands.
  • Use the minor choice technique. This can be calming because when a child is having a tantrum they feel out of control and they have no choices. Giving them a minor choice helps to calm them down and help them feel in control. For example, “I want to help you deal with this. Would you like your blue coat or your sweater?”

When we give children minor decisions to make, they feel like they have some control over themselves and the situation. It is not at all useful to discuss the child’s tantrum behavior while they are in the middle of it. It is helpful though to speak to them about it later, when they are calm again. For instance, “Sara, I know you were really upset when you could not have your regular snack because we had run out of it. What could we do next time to help you when we run out of your favorite snack?”

Transitions are particularly difficult for children with HFA and are a major cause of meltdowns. Since parents may be unaware of this trigger, they can benefit from learning skills to deal with transitions.”

Strategies such as cueing, describing and affirming the child’s feelings, using ‘Same Plan/New Plan’ cards, using visual schedules, and using social stories can go a long way in helping to prevent meltdowns.

For more information on the types of transitions, strategies to prevent meltdowns, and supporting parents in managing behavior at home, refer to the course High Functioning Autism in Children.

Professional Development Resources is approved to sponsor continuing education by the American Psychological Association (APA); the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Georgia State Board of Occupational Therapy; the New York State Education Department’s State Board for Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed mental health counselors (#MHC-0135); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501); the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678); and is CE Broker compliant (all courses are reported within a few days of completion).

 
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Posted by on December 11, 2019 in Mental Health

 

Final Hours to take advantage of our Buy 2, Get 1 Course Free. Don’t Delay!

 

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Add any three courses to your shopping cart and the lowest priced 3rd course will automatically deduct at checkout (courses must be purchased together, one free course per order).

Use coupon PDR 360 to receive an extra 25% off at checkout!

Offer valid on future orders only. Sale ends December 3, 2019.

Use the links to see our range of CE Courses!

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Psychology CE

                         

Counseling CE 

                         

Marriage and Family  Therapy CE

                         

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Occupational Therapy CE

                         

Nutrition and Dietetics CE

                         

 

The Four Steps of Perspective Taking

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Course excerpt from High Functioning Autism in Children

Children with high functioning autism (HFA) differ from other children on the spectrum in that they wish to interact with others but lack the know-how. Thus, social skills training is an important component of remediation for children with HFA.

Michelle Garcia Winner (2007) created the “Social Thinking” program. This approach has gained popularity in recent years because it teaches children the “why” of social decision-making, not just rote social skills. This training can help children with the generalization of their social learning skills across various settings. Such interventions aim at teaching children the thought processes that underlie social behaviors so that they can think flexibly and tailor their behavior to a given situation.

Up until now, professionals have generally tried to teach children specific skills, such as greetings or initiating a topic of conversation and then practice with them to improve the development of these skills. This does not account for the fact that we cannot use social skills in the same way under different social situations. For example, “consider a 13-year-old boy who – based on the culture of his age – is actually expected to say “What’s up?” when greeting his peers, say “Hi” when greeting his teacher and then say “Hello” when brought into a formal meeting.” (For more detail, visit the Social Thinking website at  https://www.socialthinking.com )

According to Garcia Winner (2015):

The gap between teaching students behaviorally based, memorized social skills and the need to teach our students how to adapt their social skills based on the expectations of the situation and the people in the situation is the gap between the more tradition social skills teachings and Social Thinking. When teaching Social Thinking we are teaching students to become active social problem solvers who are not focused on memorizing what to do socially but instead are engaged in figuring out what people around them are doing, what they are expecting, what our students are seeking in their interactions with others and all this helps them to figure out how to interact in any given time or place and with different people. (para. 3)

Garcia Winner adds that social thinking is not only employed when we are involved in social interactions, it may be utilized any time we share a common space. For instance, social thinking is engaged when one is at the supermarket and moves their shopping cart out of the way, as a courtesy to a fellow shopper.

Instructing children on social skills involves the conveyance of the presence of other people’s minds, as well as social thoughts. To do this we can employ the four steps of perspective thinking.

The four steps listed and discussed here (adapted from https://www.socialthinking.com/Articles?name=social-behavior-starts-social-thought-perspective-taking) can assist students with recognizing and considering the extent to which they think about other individuals, and adjusting their behaviors to suit, even in the absence of intentional communication. We may engage these four steps to accommodate just about any social interaction:

Step 1: Whenever you share a common space with another individual, both of you generate thoughts in regard to the other. You have thoughts about them, and they have thoughts about you.

Step 2: Initially, individuals will typically consider the intentions and motives of the other. If one person or the other appears suspicious, they will be scrutinized more closely by the other individual.

Step 3: Each individual will likely consider and estimate how the other person is assessing them, whether it be positive, negative, or neutral. Another aspect is that there may be a history between the two individuals, which impacts how these thoughts may be weighed.

Step 4: Steps may then be taken, in the form of behavior modification, to alter or maintain the perception that we wish to project for the other individual, and the other individual is likely reciprocal in this activity.

The four steps described above occur at an intuitive level (below immediate consciousness) within milliseconds. The initial three steps engage social thought, whereas only the last step involves behavior.

When discussing these steps with students, it can be explained that this process is based on the fundamental assumption that all of us innately wish other individuals to have reasonably “good” thoughts about us, even when our interactions are fleeting. Further, this assumption has the opposite concern embedded within it; we do not wish for other individuals to have “strange” or uneasy thoughts about us. It can indeed be a challenge for spectrum students to simply perceive that other individuals likely have thoughts that are different from their own, let alone mentioning that we all partake in having both good and weird thoughts about others. Most students with social learning difficulties rarely, if ever, stop to contemplate that they, too, can entertain strange thoughts about others.

In addition, many students with autism do not understand that social memories play a critical role in our day-to-day interactions. All of us have emotional social memories of individuals that are derived from how they make us think about them over time. People whose actions convey “good” thoughts in the minds of others are much more likely to be considered as “friendly” and have a far better likelihood of making friends than those who generate “weird” thought memories in the minds of others. In teaching social thinking, students should not only be helped to realize they have to be responsible for their own behaviors over time, but also be made aware of the associated social memories that people retain about them. The rationale behind someone calling a friend or co-worker to clarify or apologize for how their actions might have been interpreted is to instill improved social memories about themselves in their brains.

The Four Steps of Perspective Taking are engaged when we share space with others and are a requirement toward the appropriate behavior of student’s in the classroom. An unspoken rule in the classroom setting requires that all students and teachers participate in an awareness of, and mutual social thought about, the others in the class. Also, that each student, and the teacher, is responsible for monitoring and modifying their behaviors accordingly. A student who is not proficient in these four steps is typically considered to have a behavioral issue.

Students with social learning deficits must learn cognitively what many individuals do naturally and intuitively. Therefore, to assist them with grasping perspective-taking, lessons should be actively taught that include these four steps. To ponder this aspect in more depth, try spending a day observing/noting your own social thoughts, and how they impact your actions in the presence of others. Subsequently, one’s own social thinking may serve as a guide for instructing ASD students. For instance, teachers often discover that students with high functioning autism develop quite an interest in their own, and others’ thoughts, once the process is broken down into discrete elements that can be observed, discussed, and related to their own day to day lives.

Follow this link to learn more about teaching children perspective-taking and to learn strategies to ease transitions, prevent meltdowns, and teach organizational skills.

Click here to learn more

CE Credit: 4 Hours

Target Audience: Psychology CE Counseling CE | Speech-Language Pathology CEUs | Social Work CE | Occupational Therapy CEUs | Marriage & Family Therapy CE | Nutrition & Dietetics CE | School Psychology CE | Teaching CE

Learning Level: Introductory

Course Type: Online

Professional Development Resources is approved to sponsor continuing education by the American Psychological Association (APA); the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Georgia State Board of Occupational Therapy; the New York State Education Department’s State Board for Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed mental health counselors (#MHC-0135); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501); the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678); and is CE Broker compliant (all courses are reported within a few days of completion).

 

Dealing with Aggression Online

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Course excerpt from Managing Anger & Aggressive Behavior

At the root of aggression is an anger system. Anger is an essential human feeling and emotion. It is likely that humans developed an anger system to protect and enforce our own interests against those of other people, other creatures and from environmental threats. Ironically if we did not have an anger system we would not, in all likelihood, maintain our social networks or improve them. Anger allows us to express our concern for one another. In expressing our anger we may incite another to respond with an apology or change in behavior and this in turn leads to the relationship improving and getting repaired. This happens with individuals, within families and communities and at the national and international level. Anger may lead to war and conflict but it also leads society to rectify or respond to social injustices.

Anger is activated by triggers. These triggers vary from person to person and by age, gender and culture. Women are often triggered by their close relationships. For instance, they may feel let down by family members and friends. According to studies conducted into anger and gender, men are more likely to be angered by objects not working correctly, encounters with strangers, and societal issues (Thomas, 2003). Children’s anger is most often roused when they are blocked from doing something they’ve set their minds on, such as when they throw a temper tantrum because their toys are taken away.

Anger, when it is emoted, encompasses everything from mild irritation to intense rage. When a cartoon character gets angry, steams comes out the ears. We say things like ‘That makes my blood boil!’ In real life the response varies from individual to individual, but typical indicators include grinding teeth, clenching fists, or going red and flushed. We may also go pale, experience numbness or muscle tensions, or get hot and clammy.

However, when anger turns into aggression, steps must be taken. Aggression, in general terms, is defined as harmful behavior which violates social conventions and which may include deliberate intent to harm or injure another person. These include overt aggression, passive aggression, covert aggression, verbal aggression and a newer, frequent, form of aggression; online aggression, which can be overt or passive in form. In this article, we will focus on dealing with online aggression.

Anonymity is one aspect behind aggressive online behavior. People are more aggressive and forthright online because they’re anonymous and can act unpleasantly without immediate consequence. Anonymity or operating undercover enables people to do things they wouldn’t ordinarily do. Online harassment is on the rise and the problem of cyber harassment has escalated in recent times. Some individuals, including politically prominent people and celebrities, have taken to naming and shaming and/or prosecuting those who are aggressive online.

Cyber-bullying, e-bullying, or trolling is intrusive and a form of psychological abuse. This type of bullying takes place through online forums, such as social networking sites, messaging apps, gaming sites, and in chat rooms such as Facebook, XBox Live, Instagram, YouTube, and Snapchat. Cyber harassment is the act of sending offensive, rude, and insulting messages and being abusive. It may involve:

  • Denigration – This is when someone sends information or shares photos about another person that is false, damaging and untrue for the purpose of ridiculing or spreading malicious rumors and gossip about them.
  • Flaming – This is when someone purposely uses extreme and offensive language and gets into online arguments and fights. They do this to cause reactions and they enjoy the fact it causes someone distress.
  • Impersonation – This is when someone hacks into another person’s email or social networking account and uses that person’s online identity to send or post vicious or embarrassing material to and about others.
  • Outing and Trickery – This is when someone tricks a person into revealing secrets about themselves, then forwards these and other personal information to third parties. They may also do this with private images and videos. This can take the form of doxing (sometimes written as doxxing). The term derives from an alteration of the abbreviation “docs” (for “documents”) and is an activity in which someone openly reveals and publicizes information about an individual for revenge via the violation of privacy.
  • Cyber Stalking – This is an act of harassment in which the stalker repeatedly sends intimidating messages, which may include threats of harm, or engages in other online activities that make a person afraid for his or her safety.
  • Exclusion – This is when others intentionally leave someone out of a group such as group messages, online apps, gaming sites, and other online engagement. This is a form of social mistreatment.
  • Doxing – This is a controversial issue, as it highlights the conflicts surrounding freedom of information. For example, the internet-based group of hacktivists, Anonymous, became known for a series of well-publicized stunts and for Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks on government and corporate websites. They make frequent use of doxing, as do related groups like AntiSec and LulzSec; the latter came to international prominence after hacking the websites of the Public Broadcasting Service, Sony, and the United States Senate. These groups claim that they aim to protest government censorship and monitoring of the internet. Supporters call members of these groups “freedom fighters” and digital Robin Hoods, while critics describe them as “cyber lynch-mobs” or “cyber terrorists.”

Tips for Dealing with Aggression Online

As soon as you determine that you are being harassed by someone, tell that person in clear terms to stop contacting you and leave it there. You do not need to explain why, just state that you do not want the person to contact you. Keep a record of the messages. A normal initial reaction upon receiving harassing emails or messages is to delete the communications. However, it is important to save every communication you have with the harasser. If you receive phone calls from the harasser, your local phone company can help trace them. Do not destroy any evidence and, as soon as you can, turn the evidence over to the police.

Complain to the Appropriate Parties – It can at times be a little difficult for people to determine who the appropriate party is. If you’re harassed in a chat room, contact whoever runs the server being used. If you’re harassed on any kind of instant messaging service, read the terms of service and harassment policies provided, and use any contact address given there. If someone has created a website to harass you, complain to the server on which the site is hosted. If you’re being harassed via email, complain to the email service (like Hotmail) used to send the messages.

Holding the Harasser to Account – If the circumstances and behavior of the harasser are threatening to your safety and wellbeing, report the harasser to the police. However online communication is nearly impossible to effectively monitor, and could have dire consequences for freedom of speech. The best way to deal with online negative and aggressive behavior is to refuse to engage with it. If, as a collective body, we refuse to respond or engage with aggressive online behavior then we have a better chance of making it socially unacceptable. Therefore, we each need to do our individual bit online to assert prosocial communication over antisocial forms.

For information on  the difference between anger and aggression and to learn more about the different types of aggression, follow the link below:

Click here to learn more

CE Credit: 3 Hours

Target Audience: Psychology CE | Counseling CE | Social Work CE | Occupational Therapy CEUs | Marriage & Family Therapy CE |  School Psychology CE | Teaching CE

Learning Level: Introductory

Course Type: Online

Professional Development Resources is approved to sponsor continuing education by the American Psychological Association (APA); the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159);  the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501); the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678); and is CE Broker compliant (all courses are reported within a few days of completion).

Target Audience: Psychology CE | Counseling CE | Social Work CE | Occupational Therapy CEUs | Marriage & Family Therapy CE |  School Psychology CE | Teaching CE

 
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Posted by on October 24, 2018 in Mental Health

 

What is Your Sense of Purpose?

 

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Course excerpt from Motivation: Igniting the Process of Change

Tony Robbins often refers to himself as “The Why Guy.” The point Robbins makes, and has made a fortune promoting, is that why we do something matters more than how we do it. As Robbins says, There is a powerful driving force inside every human being that, once unleashed, can make any vision, dream, or desire a reality” (Robbins, 2017).

Sense of Purpose

Motivation relies on this driving force, and more specifically, the purpose behind it. Having a strong sense of purpose, as one study shows, doesn’t just drive motivation; it also drives health and longevity.

Looking to expand upon previous research that have suggested that finding a purpose in life lowers risk of mortality above and beyond other factors that are known to predict longevity, Patrick Hill of Carleton University in Canada and Nicholas Turiano of the University of Rochester Medical Center used nationally representative data available from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study to explore whether the benefits of purpose vary over time, such as across different developmental periods or after important life transitions.

The data included self-reported purpose in life (e.g., “Some people wander aimlessly through life, but I am not one of them”) and other psychosocial variables that gauged their positive relations with others and their experience of positive and negative emotions from over 6,000 participants.

At the 14-year follow-up period, a strong connection emerged: those participants who had died (569 in total) had reported lower purpose in life and fewer positive relations than did survivors. Conversely, greater purpose in life consistently predicted lower mortality risk across the lifespan, showing the same benefit for younger, middle-aged, and older participants across the follow-up period (Hill & Turiano, 2014).

“Our findings point to the fact that finding a direction for life, and setting overarching goals for what you want to achieve can help you actually live longer….So the earlier someone comes to a direction for life, the earlier these protective effects may be able to occur” (Hill, 2014).

While Hill and Turiano noted that there are many reasons to believe that a sense of purpose would have protective health effects in older adults, a surprising outcome was that it was just as important for younger and middles aged adults. Moreover, purpose had similar benefits for adults regardless of retirement status – a known mortality risk factor – and the longevity benefits of purpose in life held even after other indicators of psychological well-being, such as positive relations and positive emotions, were taken into account (Hill & Turiano, 2014). “These findings suggest that there’s something unique about finding a purpose that seems to be leading to greater longevity,” summarizes Hill (2014).

As a sense of purpose seems to act so salubriously in our lives, it makes sense that without it, we suffer.

For information on  factors that affect motivation, follow the link below:

Click here to learn more

CE Credit: 3 Hours

Target Audience: Psychology CE | Counseling CE | Social Work CE | Occupational Therapy CEUs | Marriage & Family Therapy CE | Nutrition & Dietetics CE | School Psychology CE | Teaching CE

Learning Level: Intermediate

Course Type: Online

Professional Development Resources is approved to sponsor continuing education by the American Psychological Association (APA); the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501); the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678); and is CE Broker compliant (all courses are reported within a few days of completion).

Target Audience: Psychology CE | Counseling CE | Social Work CE | Occupational Therapy CEUs | Marriage & Family Therapy CE | Nutrition & Dietetics CE | School Psychology CE | Teaching CE

Earn CE Wherever YOU Love to Be!

 

 
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Posted by on August 24, 2018 in Mental Health

 
 
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